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  • Italia 150 (Centocinquanta)
    Italia Centocinquanta 1861-2011

    The Italy as one united country will become 150 years old in year 2011. To celebrate the 150th national unity the Italian government and the people of Italy will organize big events. The year 2011 is the year to experience Italy at its best.

    For a whole year the first capital of Italy the city of Turin will be the place to relive the past, Not only it is an occasion for Italians but the joy and the glamour will also be shared by the whole world Alike. ExoticItaly invites you to Visit Italy During 2011. We will acquire special room allocations and will coordinate with the organizers of Italia Centocinquanta for special places at all the events and celebrations.

    Please bookmark this page and check it regularly to see the new developments and new program announcements. Please feel free to contact us should you require any special arrangements for 2011 or even earlier as the celebration and programs for 2011 have already started.

    Complete History of Italy

    Italy celebrated its golden Jubilee in 1911 and its 100 years (Golden Jublee) in 1961 now its even more its 150 years celebration. A comitee has already been formed to start the celebrations and their very first show and dinner was held in Rimini in October during the Travel Trade Italia Workshop.

    Map of Turnin with places where the celebration os Italia150 will be held.

    Italy is a wonderful country there are surprises at every step, travel to Italy any time and you can enjoy a holiday of lifetime. There are flights available from all corners of the world to Italy, You will find the best fares and plane schedules to suit your holiday.

    1861-2011
    hundred and fifty
    History of United Italy,
    seen through the rules
    of the road
    1959-1992 The fourth code
    Street

    In the long term, from 1959 to 1992, the term of the fourth code of the street, ever to today most long-lived, Italy was affected by deep economic and social transformations that have changed
    radically profile, thanks to the absence of wars
    conversely they had torn the first half of the century. from country
    semiagricolo, which he was still at the end of the second war
    World, it became a leading industrial power,
    with modern production system, flexible and articulated
    which he has placed it among the most industrially advanced States
    Western capitalist. The main indicator of this
    Economic revelation is made up of the product measurement
    gross domestic that since the beginning of the fifties to the end
    eighties, rose four times and a half, while the
    a corresponding increase in average per capita income approaches
    one of the most advanced European countries, despite the existence
    of inequality and less developed areas. Consequently,
    in the same years, significantly improves the standard of living of
    population, as some comparative data
    in this period, including the number of passenger cars, increased
    of 47 times.
    Such a context led to an increase in circulation
    and to a more distinct internal and international mobility, for
    which he poses the need to set a new code and more
    updated to the text of 1933, which took account of the
    progress of circulation and its components, the
    development of the motorway and road network in general, the new
    characteristics of vehicles, the number of which was at the time on
    two million. The system that this time the legislator chose
    follow what was experienced by the great codifications, worth
    means the approval of enabling legislation containing the criteria
    management, a delegate decree containing the rules governing

    the matter in question, and an implementing regulation and
    implementation. The enabling law was enacted on February 4
    1958 (572). Subsequently, with the Presidential Decree June 15, 1959,
    n. 393, it was approving the amended text of the rules on
    Road Traffic, which entered into force on 1 July 1959. Yes
    It was a text of ten securities comprising 147 articles,
    organic but not complete given that the part of the movement
    concerning the protection of the roads he was still governed by T.U.
    1933. The Title I contains general provisions, where
    inter alia is specified the meaning of certain terms to
    For the application of the new rules, new this
    helpful, given the need to replace the concepts of variables
    common language typical and constant meanings; It is abolished
    Furthermore the regulatory power of municipalities and authorities
    central administration, which are now enabled to enact
    only practical measures of traffic control and not
    general abstract rules. Title II deals with reports
    road, while the Title III contains provisions relating to
    vehicles in general, which are better outlined in the following
    Titles IV and V with the rules relating to the equipment and their
    entry into service. With Title VI begins discipline
    affecting the individual as an agent of circulation (requirements,
    driver's license, etc.). Title VII contains special provisions, namely
    those relating to diplomatic agents, vehicles and drivers of
    Armed Forces and State Armed Corps, movement
    of vehicles registered in foreign states. Title VIII, one
    the most important, contains the rules of conduct. the IX
    concerns the traffic police and the penal provisions, Title
    X Finally, transitional and final provisions (scope of
    administrative authorities, repeal of existing rules).
    The adoption of the Consolidated Law system was necessary
    to coordinate and unify the provisions and the existing texts,

    adapting and modifying them to have taken legal requirements
    and social. The profound changes that lay ahead
    the country and of which we mentioned at the beginning, required the
    construction and operation of new highways, decided with two
    read: "the plan Romita" in 1955 with which he foresaw the
    realize a series of infrastructure, including the Motorway
    Sun, over 700 km, completed October 4, 1964; plan
    Zaccagnini "of 1961 in which you programmed the creation of
    highways, expressways and fittings for a total of 5,120
    Kilometres. Compared to the "Romita plan" was made a
    substantial change to the legislation, with the provision that the bulk
    concessions, including some already in place, go to
    a company controlled shares at 51% by IRI, which constituted
    To this end, the Company highways. It was said highways
    Second generation, to distinguish them from those built
    during fascism, and whose characteristics we have said in
    previous number. At the end of 1974 Italy had not only
    eliminated the gap than in more developed countries but had the
    dual highways of France and two and a half times those
    Britain; in absolute terms the Italian network was
    second only to the United States and Germany.
    The energy crisis of 1973, following the decision
    OPEC countries to stop supplying oil to
    Western countries that had supported Israel during
    the Yom Kippur War, not only prompted the government to adopt
    various measures to reduce consumption, among which the most striking
    It was the block of the motor traffic on Sundays and
    public holidays, which filled the streets of pedestrians, bicycles and any
    type of animal-drawn vehicle and muscle-powered, but
    also he helped to determine a critical opinion movement
    which led to the blocking of construction of additional highways. such
    Block was decided in 1975 and was surpassed only seven years after
    with the tenth anniversary of the great communication roads Plan.
    If the motorway network was now equal if not superior to
    that of more developed countries, the endowment total viable
    compared to the number of inhabitants it remained however below. a
    late eighties, Italy had in fact 5.2 kilometers of road to
    every 1,000 inhabitants, compared with 26.5 kilometers of the United States, 20.6 of
    Norway, 14.7 in France, 8.0 for Germany, 6.2 of the
    Great Britain. In other words, the attention was focused
    for too long on the highways and on the large viable network,
    instead of on the local roads and especially the needs of
    cities, where increased accidents. The modest extension
    road would perhaps not have been a problem, the tormented views
    topography of our country, if it were not combined with
    the high number of cars per inhabitant, given in which
    Italy was instead the first places in the world, with serious reflections
    traffic and accident record.
    The years of the term of the fourth code of the road ('59 -'92)
    were also the years in which the phenomenon of road accidents
    rises to the absolute social and health emergency priorities.
    At the beginning of the 50s (from which you have the first data
    officers) the number of road deaths was lower
    at 5,500 a year. Twenty years later, in 1972, it will exceed 12,000
    units, time high for our country. Since then the number
    of deaths was reduced with varying trends. The evolution
    history of claims experience in Italy of that period may be
    divided into three phases.
    1. The '50s and' 60s, during which the number of victims
    It grows with similar rates to those of the complex of the countries
    that will form the EU 15 but follows a lower "profile", with
    mortality rates consistently lower than the European average.
    The highest level, as already mentioned, is achieved in 1972
    with 20.3 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, that is, twice the
    1953, which was 10.1.

    2. In the '70s and' 80s Italy, like almost all the EU's 15 countries,
    except Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland, which recorded
    a phase of intense expansion of mass motorization and
    mobility of individual carrier similar to that which had
    characterized other European countries in the previous two decades,
    is moving towards a phase of reduction of the victims that the reports
    the mortality rates of the mid-'50s, following a
    glide path that is similar to the European one. however
    in the second half of the 80 the reduction of speed
    of Italian mortality rate begins to decrease while it remains
    substantially constant in the EU 15.
    3. In the 90's instead falls into a phase of stagnation;
    the number of victims remains substantially constant, contrary
    slightly increases (compared to 1989) in the first half of the
    decade, just the fifth code when it enters into force
    Street . The result is that the Italian mortality rate moves
    above the European average with an evolution which is in
    sharp contrast to the evolution media.
    The longevity of the '59 code is in part due to the periodic
    revisions of legislation to adapt it to progress
    technical and the needs of a rapidly changing society.
    In fact the years of productive development particularly
    argued, the real economic miracle between 1958
    and 1963, with weary steps and setbacks which it was
    that of 1981-83 when the annual growth was only the
    0.6%. A development which had one of its driving forces
    the abundant labor supply fed by
    internal migration, which took on a real character
    Mass since the mid-50s and veered down
    the central axis south-north, towards the industrial triangle (MilanoTorino-Genoa),
    with minor regional axes shorter-range,
    from the countryside to the cities and the mountain and hill areas
    Alps and Apennines to the plains. Since the mid-60s
    also they went spreading with unexpected vitality
    thousands of micro, often family-run,
    especially in the countryside of central and north-east,
    which still constitute one of the pillars of our
    productive system. But those years were also years of intense
    cultural changes, costume, demographic. Until the beginning of
    50s saying it was still dominant in Italy the family
    traditional, faithful to the values ​​of Catholic morality, in which
    there were strong ties with kinship, marriage was
    union considered valid for life and was credited with a
    great value to the procreation of children. From then on you
    witness a reduction in the number of marriages, increase
    of marital separations and divorces, the liberalization
    the sexual sphere, control and reduction of births, with
    following supremacy of the "nuclear family", increment
    the elderly, slowing population growth,
    which amounted to almost 55 million in 1970.
    This long period ('59 -'92) the years between 1969 and the first
    eighties remain in the collective experience and memory
    history of Italian as a dark and disturbing interlude,
    not so much in economic terms, during which we witnessed
    only to a slowing down and not to an interruption of the values
    real economy (income, investment, employment, etc.),
    As the political and institutional level. In fact the years of
    frequent ministerial crises that create dangerous power vacuum,
    the unfolding of the so-called "strategy of tension"
    which started out with the massacre of Piazza Fontana in Milan
    December 12, 1969, bombings of the dripping (square of
    Loggia in Brescia, Italicus train, both in 1974, the
    massacre at Bologna railway station in August 1980)
    and especially of the birth and development of a "terrorism
    Red "that will bleed the subsequent years.

    Upon entry into force of the fourth code of the road
    automobile production, to return to the factors of circulation
    and in particular to the vehicle, it was definitely the driving industry,
    given the enormous induced that generated (gasoline, highways,
    12
    tires, repair shops and maintenance services in general, activities
    commercial, insurance, etc.). The vehicle fleet in 1959
    He exceeded two million. The car spread occurred despite
    a high tax burden, especially on gasoline, which in
    In 1958 it cost 135 pounds per liter, of which 98 were of taxes. Two
    years later, meeting the many protests, the government put into effect
    a first disregard that brought down the price of 100 pounds
    per liter. In those years the three top models of the main house
    It was the Italian automaker Fiat 600, the new 500 and
    1100. It probably has already said that the 500 and 600 were
    the two cars who carried out the individual car
    in Italy, and who remain in the collective symbol
    the economic miracle. The number of Italians who buy the car
    continues to grow at a fast pace but, in the early
    sixty (1962), the individual motors in our country
    It is still essentially in two wheels, given the preponderance
    of motor vehicles (4,248,637), in particular of Vespas and Lambrettas,
    than cars (3,030,056). The early sixties are also
    the years that mark the "fast" car on the train
    transport over long distances, as evidenced by the challenge
    launched in April 1961 by the magazine Quattroruote: a
    Alfa Romeo challenged the Settebello of Railways between Milan and
    Rome, employing 5 hours and 59 minutes compared to 6 hours and 37 minutes
    train, despite the Autostrada del Sole, then came
    only in Florence.
    At the beginning of 1970 enters into force the Law of 24 December 1969
    n. 990, which made compulsory, as it was already very
    widespread, insurance civil liability arising out
    use of motor vehicles and ships.
     In the seventies, the percentage increase of motor vehicles
    circulating and was lower for the first time, in 1978, he was recorded
    even a small decrease at 1.85%, but the car's spread
    was now very high: in 1975 vehicles registered
    They were 16.2 million, in 1981 over 20 million in 1991, on the eve
    retirement of the fourth code of the street, reach an altitude
    31 million (the vehicles are now over 48 million). The region with
    the largest number of vehicles resulted Lombardy,
    followed by Lazio, but the differences between one area and another were now
    irrelevant since the early unitary post, because the car had
    penetrated deeply and cities across the country campaigns.
    Moreover, in the early nineties, the Italian roads clogged
    the car began to show the effects of a bully
    multiplication of foreign competition, particularly
    Asian models. In the mid-eighties, just to face
    to the problems posed by the high urban traffic, they are adopted
    the first traffic plans.
    We want to close this meeting, as we are now
    used to do, with some news on the supervisory bodies. Article
    137, in listing the bodies who are entrusted with the performance of
    traffic police services, says that it is up in the main street
    the officers, NCOs, and graduated the specialty guards
    traffic police of the Public Security Guards Corps.
    The Traffic Police, after the organizational form established
    Minister Scelba in 1949 which rearranged the basis of 16
    Compartmental commands and sections on a provincial basis, which
    it ceased to depend on the police headquarters, but remaining
    under the provincial command of the Corps of Guards P.S.
    for administrative purposes, it will find its final organization
    by Law No. 121/1981. The Departments of specialties the law
    to confer the widest autonomy reform, while
    Quaestor having to report to the questions concerning the order
    and public safety.
    The Traffic Police, over the years we are discussing, meets
    the great need for mobility and road safety also
    through a continuous updating of their strategies
    operational. The remarkable flexibility of its structure the
    It allows to adapt to the changes taking place, both through courses
    training at the training center of Cesena, both
    equipping of vehicles and special equipment able to counteract
    certain phenomena. So at this time we pass by
    rudimentary equipment for the control of the tires and of the
    vehicle weight of the fifties, the electronic meters of
    speed, the sound level meters to determine the extent of pollution
    sound, to breathalyzers to find out who driving while
    drunkenness nineties.

    * Deputy Commissioner of Police
    * Police Service Street Rome
    ... continue
    Note
     Source: ANFIA for motor vehicles; Istat for motorcycles
    Bibliography
    - G. Biserni and L. Borselli, Yearbook of road safety 210, Sapignoli, Torriana (RN), 2010
    - Colucci-Paloscia, Traffic Police fifty years, Istituto Poligrafico and Zecca dello Stato, Roma, 1997
    - De Agostini, Large encyclopedia, Novara, 1992
    - F. Della Peruta, nineteenth History, Le Monnier, Florence, 1995
    - F. Garri, History of legal regulation of road traffic, La Tribuna, Piacenza, 1964
    - S. Maggi, History of Transport in Italy, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2005
    - A. and M. Paloscia Salticchioli, Chiefs of Police - The history of public safety through the interior ministry strategies, Laurus Robuffo, Rome, 2003
    - Protospataro G., the Highway Code commented, Forlì, Egaf, 2006
    - Tamburrino G. and P. Cialdini, Commentary on the new code of the street, Turin, UTET, 1994
    - D. Tinti, From the Royal Carabinieri 121 - Origins and History of the Police Forces in Italy, Perusia, Perugia, 1999
    - National Council on Road Safety White Paper - State of Road Safety, implementation of the national plan, initial assessments - General Budget,
    Rome, April 2007

     


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